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登錄 查找 中德職業教育:喊好還不夠,更需各方實干參與
2018-12-03 08:47:24 來源: 作者: 【 】 瀏覽:2887次 評論:0

119,德國合作伙伴提醒我,今天是個值得紀念的日子。2016年的這一天,我在美國圣地亞哥通過電子郵件給德國學校發了一封信,很快得到回復,中德職業教育合作項目由此開始啟動運作。

與德國學生對話。

 

時間過得飛快,轉眼兩年就過去了,兩年的時間可以用酸甜苦辣來形容。職業教育是一件人人說好、都覺得中國很需要,卻不知道從哪里入手、應該怎么辦的事情,因此必須做大量的溝通說服工作。不僅要和德國方面進行大量的交流磨合、談合作細節、商討協議內容,還要與國內投資人、國內各個職業院校和城市合伙人一遍遍會談,甚至上次講過的內容,下次還得重復。此外還要設計課程、翻譯教材、討論合作模式和證書如何發放等,活生生把我逼成了德國職業教育專家。

中德職業教育合作第一次會議。

 

辛勤耕耘,多少會有所收獲。

 

首先是得到了理念上的認同。中國職業教育存在的問題是:學校生源差-培養不到位-畢業學生水平達不到企業要求-企業因而不肯給學生高工資-學生不想上職業院校-只有迫不得已的差生才上職業教育,這簡直就是一個痛苦的惡性循環。面對這樣一個看似無解的局面,該如何做才好呢?想來想去,其實只有一條出路:打破某一個環節。只有在現有條件的基礎上嚴格按照德國模式,培養出企業需要的高素質人才,企業才會給更高的薪酬。如此,才能吸引更多優秀的學生參與到職業教育中來,讓職業教育走上良性循環。問題往往就是機會,解決問題的過程就是機會的獲得。

 

德文媒體對中德合作項目的報道。

 

這個道理講明白了,得到理念上的認同,大家也就有了信心,于是青島一家上市公司決定,分別在青島和北京成立公司,擼起袖子加油干,大力推廣中德職業教育項目。當然,這個過程我說得很輕松,實際上很多次都想放棄了。我的德國合作伙伴和國內朋友多次詢問:“這么久沒有動靜,你們還做嗎?”我只好打起精神回復:“耐心等待,一定要做下去。”盡管多等了將近一年時間,但2018年總算是運轉起來了,目前重點推廣的專業是汽車維修和養老護理,今后再延伸到機電一體化、新能源、智能制造、醫療器械維修等領域。

訪問IHK。

 

要想培養出高質量的畢業生,必須按照德國的規矩來,而不是強調中國國情或中國特色。中國國情當然有道理,但有道理與有效果兩者之間,哪個更重要?中國很多事情很奇怪,只要一突出中國國情,馬上就變了味:中國沒有德國那么完備的法律體系、中國企業不像德國企業那樣重視教育投入、中國學校體制和德國大不一樣等,因此德國的職業教育不能照搬,要根據中國國情進行本土化改變。當然,你說的是對的,但是結果怎樣呢?你培養出來那么多學生,企業滿意嗎?中國與德國進行職業教育合作,至少也有二十年了,為何總是培養不出德國那樣高質量的畢業生?總是強調國情的特殊性,難道不應該重新打量和審視特殊性帶來的弊端嗎?

與巴伐利亞州教育主管部門負責人會談。

 

如果一味強調國情和困難,教育過程就容易被注水,讓德國先進的教育模式變形。那么,如何才算嚴格遵守德國模式呢?第一,按照德國雙元教育模式,理論學習與實訓同步。一周的理論學習,下一周的實訓必須是同一內容,而且學校教師與實訓師傅必須有經常性的溝通。同樣,三周或一個月也是這個道理。第二,在雙元制模式中,學生是主體,企業和學校是支持者,更不是保姆。只有學生成為了主體,才能激發出學員的積極性和主動性。因此,在招生錄取的時候,必須和學生和家長講清楚,愿意自我發展、真正愛學習的就進來,否則寧可不接收。第三,相對而言,在學生培養過程中,企業應該比學校發揮更大的作用,絕對不是目前的學校主導模式,學校閉門造車的模式該改變了。

應德國教育部職業教育研究所邀請,前往波恩就中德職業教育合作發言

 

其次是培訓了中國師資、企業和學校管理者。對此,我們采取了混合模式,讓企業和學校管理者前往德國考察并參加雙元制模式的培訓,通過考察和培訓,充分理解雙元制教學的精髓。他們考察學習歸來后,才會對雙元制教學模式給予真正的重視。20174月,我們組織了十多位養老院管理者、學校管理和技術負責人前往德國考察,他們不僅僅在一所學校的課堂上學習,而且在幾所學校進行了內容各異的培訓,從不同的角度對德國的養老體系、護理模式等進行了比較。更重要的是,他們一邊學習,一邊參觀養老院,同步與護理人員進行深入的交流。北京養老院負責人陳總感嘆:“什么叫程序嚴謹?我終于體會到了。德國養老護理人員在學校學習的三十六個動作,在養老院工作時嚴格遵守。只要每天把這36個動作做到位了,就是高質量而完美的護理服務。”20179月至10月,我們還邀請到德國有實戰經驗的老師前往貴州、南京和青島進行師資培訓,經過德國老師的輔導,中方教師不僅理解了德國教學模式的特點,而且掌握了德國護理的實際程序。這位女老師為了讓學員真正體會到德國課程的特色,還自帶了幾十斤的教學器具來到中國。我方一位助理人員,因為幫老師提行李,把脖子都扭歪了,至今還躺在家里休息。

在遵義宣講德國職業教育。

 

2018年,德國考察和國內師資培訓還將繼續進行,包括養老護理和汽車維修培訓。但是,更重要的是合作的推廣,讓中方更多的學校和教育機構參與進來。我計劃采取城市合伙人模式,即每個城市招募一個合伙人,由其負責與當地學校的對接。他的主要工作是聯系好學校,然后由我方派出專業人員來洽談。那么,如何保障城市合伙人的權益呢?我們的方案是,由中方學校、德國學校和城市合伙人簽訂三方協議。根據協議,合作收入由城市合伙人支配,他們獲得主要、甚至是絕大部分的收益。

 

這樣做的好處是什么呢?首先是讓我們北京的機構騰出精力,專心研發課程,特別是課程的更新迭代,讓模仿者只能在后面吃力地跟跑,同時培訓出更多更好的師資。其次是推廣更有針對性。作為城市合伙人,他必須在當地有豐富的人脈資源,最好與學校有良好的關系。一旦這樣的人成為我們的城市合伙人,他們就會精準找到可以合作的學校,更為順利地搭建起中德合作的平臺。

 

孤掌難鳴,眾人拾柴火焰高。一個機構的資源和能力畢竟有限,更別說一個人了。要想讓中國職業教育得到實質性的提升,僅僅喊好是不夠的,更多的有識之士特別是實干者應該參與進來。中國企業,不要僅僅停留在員工素質不行、高技能人才難遇的感嘆上,該為此做點什么了。只有各方通力合作,才能把德國優質的教育模式、體系引進來,提升中國的職業教育水平,讓工匠精神真正扎根于華夏大地。

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